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Oilseeds & Fixed Oils
Fixed oils are oils obtained from plants that are fatty, dense and non-volatile, such as olive and sweet almond oil. This is in contrast to essential oils which are volatile in nature. Some of the prominent fixed oils are almond oil, castor oil, coconut oil etc. The term vegetable oils is normally used interchangeably with the term fixed oils. Fixed oils are derived from seeds, nuts & vegetables.
The major oilseeds are soybeans, rapeseed, cottonseed, sunflowerseed, groundnut, palm, copra, sesame, linseed & castorseed, maize oil and coconut oil ( see here for worldwide statistics of major oilseeds)
Oils obtained from oilseeds are also known as fixed oils, as against the essential oils which are more volatile.
The primary oilseeds & fixed oils are: Soybeans, Rapeseed, Sunflowerseed, Peanut, Cottonseed, Copra, Palm Kernel (Seed, Meal, Oil) Palm Oil, Olive Oil.
Fixed Oils & Oilseeds Links
Links for Primary Oilseeds:
Oil Extraction & Production from Oilseeds
Oilseeds processing & oil extraction comprise the following processes:
Lipids in everyday terminology refer to fats and fat-like substances, and include sterols, fatty acids and related substances.
Lipids are a class of hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds essential for the structure and function of living cells. Lipids are characterized by being water-insoluble and soluble in nonpolar organic solvents such as ether. Lipids are usually aliphatic but they can have rings in their structure.
Although the word lipid is commonly used as a synonym to fat, fats belong to a subgroup of triglyceride lipids.
Most fixed oils from oilseeds contain lipids, usually in the form of triglycerides. Lipids may be accumulated in oilseeds in one or both types of seed tissue the embryo or the endosperm. In oilseeds such as sunflower, linseed or rapeseed, it is accumulated in the cotyledons of the embryo. In species such as castor bean, coriander or carrot, the endosperm is the main site of lipid accumulation. An example of a plant in which lipids occur both in the embryo & the endosperm is tobacco (this definition is courtesy Plant Oils & Fats Page of Cyberlipid.org).
· Euro Fed Lipid (In German)
· Chilean Corporation of Oils and Fats (CORCHIGA)
Chemistry & Structure of Fixed Oils
Fixed oils from seeds, nuts & vegetables are typically composed of triglyceride molecules (also known as . A triglyceride is a glyceride in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids - a triglyceride is typically composed of a 3-carbon alcohol (glycerol) plus three 18-carbon (or 16-carbon) fatty acids. The 18-carbon fatty acids are Linoleic acid, Stearic acid & Oleic acid. or triacylglyceride)
The fatty acids may be saturated (with all single bonds), mono-unsaturated (with one double bond) or polyunsaturated (with 2 or more double bonds). Plant fatty acids are usually unsaturated and liquid at room temperature, with one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms (mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated). A notable exception is the palm fatty acid palmitin which is saturated and contains 16 rather than 18 carbon atoms. Since the plant fatty acids are unsaturated, the plant oils it is liquid at room temperature.
See also: Triglycerides from Wikipedia, Linoleic Acid from Wikipedia, Stearic Acid from Wikipedia, Oleic Acid Physical & Chemical Properties, Fats, Oils, Fatty Acids, Triglycerides Chemical Structure, See also: Food, Fats & Oils from ISEO (PDF)
Cis & Trans Fatty Acids
Fatty acid isomers containing double bonds may have the cis or trans configuration. In cis fatty acids, all the hygrogen atoms adjacent to the double bonds are on the same side of the longitudinal carbon axis. In trans fatty acids, the hygrogen atoms adjacent to the double bonds occur on alternate sides of the main axis.
The trans configuration is chemically more stable. It is typically produced during partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated vegetable oils.
Trans fatty acids tend to raise the level of low density lipoproteins (LDLs = bad) and lower the level of high density lipoproteins (HDLs = good). These changes in blood lipids (cholesterol levels) may increase the risk of heart disease (atherosclerosis) in some people. Dieticians generally recommend the use of mono-unsaturated, unhydrogenated oils and the avoidance of trans fatty acids found in french fries, cookies and crackers.
Unsaturated fatty acids found in plant oils and seeds are typically omega-6 fatty acids, in which the first double bond is located on the sixth carbon atom, counting backwards from right to left. Omega-3 fatty acids in which the first double bond in on carbon #3 - are prevalent in fish oils and flax seeds.
The major countries that are producers of oilseeds are USA, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, EU-15 Countries, China, Central Europe, Canada, Brazil & Argentina
Top Producers of Oilseeds ( in alphabetical order)
Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, CIS, EU-25, India, Japan, S Korea, Taiwan, US
Australia, Canada, China, CIS, EU-25, India, Japan, US
Argentina, China, CIS, EU-25, US
China, EU-25, India, Indonesia, Malaysia
Argentina, Canada, China, EU-25, India, Mexico, US
Oilseeds & Essential Oils International Trade Links
Plant Oils in USA
Plant Oils in Malaysia
Plant Oils in Indonesia
Plant Oils in India
India is the worlds largest importer of vegetable oils.
Plant Oils in Europe
Plant Oils in China
Plant Oils in Canada
Plant Oils in Brazil
Plant Oils in Argentina
Plant Oils - Other Countries
Oilseeds News & Updates
The following web sites provide news and updates for plant oils.
More Oilseeds Industry Reference & Resources
More Plant Oil References
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